### Basic terms used in Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a field of engineering that deals with the numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena. Here are some basic terms commonly used in Computational Fluid Dynamics:

**Fluid**: A substance that flows and takes the shape of its container, such as liquids and gases.**Flow**: The movement of fluid particles over time.**Navier-Stokes Equations**: A set of partial differential equations that describe the motion of fluid substances. These equations govern the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy.**Boundary Conditions**: Specifications of fluid properties (e.g., velocity, pressure, temperature) at the boundaries of the computational domain.**Mesh**: A discretized representation of the computational domain, consisting of interconnected geometric elements (e.g., triangles, quadrilaterals, tetrahedra, hexahedra) that cover the entire domain.**Grid**: The structured or unstructured arrangement of nodes and elements that define the mesh.**Finite Volume Method (FVM)**: A numerical method used to solve partial differential equations by discretizing the computational domain into control volumes and integrating the governing equations over these volumes.**Finite Difference Method (FDM)**: A numerical method used to solve partial differential equations by discretizing the computational domain into a grid of points and approximating derivatives using finite differences.**Finite Element Method (FEM)**: A numerical method used to solve partial differential equations by discretizing the computational domain into elements and approximating the solution within each element using piecewise polynomial functions.**Conservation Laws**: Principles that describe the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in fluid flow and heat transfer processes.**Turbulence**: Chaotic, irregular fluid motion characterized by fluctuations in velocity and pressure. Turbulence modeling is used to predict turbulent flow behavior.**Reynolds Number (Re)**: A dimensionless parameter used to characterize the relative importance of inertial forces to viscous forces in a fluid flow. It is defined as the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces.**Boundary Layer**: A thin layer of fluid adjacent to a solid boundary where the velocity gradients are significant. Boundary layer analysis is important in understanding fluid flow near solid surfaces.**Drag and Lift**: Forces exerted on bodies immersed in fluid flow. Drag is the force acting in the direction of the flow, while lift is the force perpendicular to the flow direction.**Convergence**: The condition where the numerical solution of a CFD simulation stabilizes and no longer changes significantly with additional iterations or time steps.

These are some fundamental terms used in Computational Fluid Dynamics, providing a basis for understanding and discussing fluid flow simulations and analyses.

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